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              尋找適合新時代兒童成長的國學

              作者:admin
              發布時間 2016年-04月-11日
              來源: 新啟航教育
              點擊:
              如何學國學一直是個有爭議的話題。
                  千百年來,國學作為中國文化精華和民族精神的綜合性統稱,作為一 代代中國人信守的文化特質,無論意識到與否,事實上都像“人無法拔著自己的頭發離開地球一樣”一直被國人傳承著。但是,要讓國學走進大中小學課程進行系統 學習,首先需要的就是統一認識,即在“國學是什么”“如何選”“如何教”等問題上達成大體的一致,說或不說 國學都在那里。
                  國學教育的意義與課程理念一致。
              北京教育科學研究院副院長張鐵道、北京教科院課程中心教研員朱傳世兩位專家指出:國學分為廣義和狹義兩種。廣義的國學是中國傳統的學術文化,包括哲學、歷 史學、考古學、文學、語言學等;狹義的國學則主要指傳統思想文化,是國學的核心與精髓,也是當前我國中小學國學教育的核心內容。國學教育就是指以中國傳統 思想文化為核心內容,以培養人們的傳統文化素養、人文精神、民族意識以及健全人格為主要目標的教育,這與課程理念基本一致。
                《全日制義務教育語文課程標準》(最新修訂稿)的總目標中提出:“認識中華文化的豐厚博大,汲取民族文化智慧。”《普通高中語文課程標準》則提出,高中語 文課程“必須充分發揮自身的優勢,弘揚和培育民族精神,使學生受到優秀文化的熏陶,塑造熱愛祖國和中華文明、獻身人類進步事業的精神品格,形成健康美好的 情感和奮發向上的人生態度”。
              此外,從現行國家課程規定的中小學課程教材所涉及的八大學習領域來看,無不涉及國學教育的內容,如語文里的古代經典閱讀。另從內地現行高中語文新課程教材 看,人教版的15本選修教材中有3本幾乎全是古代文化經典;而香港教材新課程初中參考篇章611篇中,文言文占34%,語體文占66%。近年來,更有一些 地區專門將國學教育納入地方教材和校本教材,開展了各種各樣的嘗試。如:山東省曲阜市成立“國學經典誦讀工程委員會”,全面啟動“國學經典誦讀工程”;四 川省成都市制定《國學實施綱要》,開展中小學生國學經典誦讀活動。
                  承認或否認 困惑都在那里
                  目前的國學課程零散無序
              據兩位專家介紹,現行國學教學在課程實施上呈現出以下特點:學校宣傳口號多;老師宣講多;學生誦讀多;學生學習活動以聽、讀、背為主;表演展示多;而在實施成效上則普遍缺乏體現目標達成的可靠指標和評價方法。
              任課教師則反映,國學教學研究關注選文多,關注教學多,關注學生學習及其成效少,缺乏對于創新實踐的案例研究與專題研究。
              一位教師說:“國學博大精深,針對不同年齡段的孩子要深淺適度,但這個度很難把握,很多時候都是感覺自己在深一腳淺一腳地教,心里沒什么底兒。”還有一位 教師為國學的學習方式感到困惑:“學生學國學,總讓他們背誦,實在很難,特別是比較貪玩的孩子,不太愿意接受背誦這種方式。”
              來自學生的困惑同樣也不少:“國學內容和我們的生活方式好像很遠,人和人的關系好像不冷不熱。那個時候的人是不是很無聊啊?”“學一點兒國學,能讓我們的 行為更加符合生活規范,特別是對行為存在偏差的學生是有幫助的,但對于很淘的學生似乎不管用。”“整天背啊背的,比較煩。老師似乎除了讀和背,就沒有別的 招了,還不如看看動畫呢!”“有的時候,我們問一些不懂的問題,老師也不知道怎么回答,就說等以后你們長大了就明白了。”
              兩位專家認為,現階段一些地區和學校的國學教育借助特色活動吸引學生,引起學生的興趣,也產生了積極影響。但從整體上看,國學教育無論是從課程設置還是課程內容上都處在一種比較零散、無序的狀態;教學方法生硬簡單,使得不少學生剛開始很感興趣,漸漸就失去了興趣。
                   尋找或改變 新國學就在那里
                   新時代國學需滿足課改需求
              張鐵道、朱傳世兩位專家認為,新時代學國學必須滿足新課程改革和教學改革的需求。比如在內容上,長期以來國學教材大多因循選文、文選、釋義集注的傳統,采 用講解、閱讀、記誦,缺乏應有的討論、質疑、批判,這種過分強調知識性教學、忽視實踐的做法必須改變。而在學習方式上過分強調所謂“寒窗苦讀”,傳遞“萬 般皆下品,唯有讀書高”“勞心者治人”的知識價值觀等不加批判分析承襲的結果,也必然脫離時代及學習者個人的發展實際,最終造成知行脫離,難以有效實現培 育中華優秀文化民族特性的目的。
              兩位專家建議:新時代的國學課程須將國學學習與少年兒童價值觀學習和人格行為培養相契合;以“學習,修身,踐行”為目的和教學線索;以青少年成長發展所需 要的基本能力品質為主題,選擇組織國學內容;以便于學習者參與體驗的方式組織教學活動,以其人格養成、日常行為習慣和實踐能力發展為評價標準。
              專家提出國學課程設置應遵循其基本原則:內容上改變“文選”呈現方式,嘗試“主題先行,文選支撐”的教材結構;圍繞“立志之道”“修身之道”“為師之道” “父母之道”“為學之道”“成事之道”“善待資源之道”“合群之道”等設置教材的主體框架;教學上注重學生多重體驗,知行意連貫,將知識學習與實踐能力發 展密切結合;評價標準上以學習者在知識掌握、行為訓練和價值觀養成三方面的發展水平綜合考核。同時借助專業機構引領支撐,如課程規劃與主題課程研發、校長 教師培訓、實踐案例研究、教學評價標準研制等。兩位專家建議宜以校本課程方式進行,逐步積累成功經驗,但終極目標是建立中小學國學課程與教學體系。
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