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              《玉篇》:中國第一部以楷書為主體的古代字典

              作者:admin
              發布時間 2016年-04月-11日
              來源: 新啟航教育
              點擊:
              《玉篇》是我國第一部以楷書為主體的古代字典,全書共收2.2萬多個字。其中有大量魏晉以來的后起字、異體字。
                《玉篇》編纂人顧野王,字希瑪,南朝吳郡吳(今蘇州)人。他從小聰明好學,9歲寫《日賦》一文,頗有文采。他長大后,博覽群書,天文、地理、蓍龜、蟲篆奇字等無所不通。據說顧野王《玉篇》時年僅25歲。
                    顧野王十分重視漢文字在社會發展中的重要作用。他在《玉篇》序言中開門見山地表明了自己的看法:“文遺百代,則禮樂可知,驛宣萬里,則心言可逑。”就是說文字可以克服語言交際在時間和空間上的局限。他認為正確使用文字,可以“鑒水鏡于往漠,遺元龜于今體,仰瞻景行,式備若文,戒慎戒邪,用存古典”。
              顧野王生活的南北朝時代,文字使用十分混亂,“五典三墳,竟開異義;六書八體,今古殊形。”古老的書籍有不同版本,字體也不同,“字書卷軸,舛錯(錯亂)尤多。”顧野王身為南朝梁的太學博士,下決心“總會眾篇,校讎群籍,以成一家之制”。
                   我國第一部字典《說文解字》以小篆為收字對象。《說文解字》之后的字書也有不少,魏有張楫《古今字話》,晉有呂忱《字林》,北魏有江式的《古今文字》,均以篆、隸為收字對象。《說文解字》先講解詞義,后分析字形,最后用聲符注音。顧野王的《玉篇》以楷書為主體,先注音,后釋義,有本義、引申義、假借義。
              《玉篇》成書于南朝梁大同九年,經后人多次刪改、修訂。宋代陳彭年、丘雍、吳銳等人重訂《玉篇》,稱為《大廣益會玉篇》。清代光緒年間,有個叫黎庶昌的官員出使日本,看到了《玉篇》的零卷,即原書第九卷、十八卷后半部分、十九卷及二十一卷。黎庶昌于是設法翻印出版,題為《影舊鈔卷子原本玉篇零卷》。以后古文字學家羅振玉又在日本發現了一些《玉篇》殘卷,影印為《卷子本玉篇》殘卷。這樣原本《玉篇》的面貌終于為后人所知。
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