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              是“禮儀之邦”還是“禮義之邦”?

              作者:admin
              發布時間 2016年-04月-11日
              來源: 新啟航教育
              點擊:
              在世界歷史發展的長河中,中國文化不僅綿延流長,而且博大深厚,從而以獨樹一幟的鮮明特色屹立于世界文化之林。
                    錢穆先生認為,禮是“整個中國人世界里一切習俗行為的準則,標志著中國的特殊性”“中國的核心思想就是‘禮’”。柳詒徵先生在《國史要義》中也強調:“禮者,吾國數千年全史之核心也……故吾國以禮為核心之史,則凡英雄宗教物質社會依時代之演變者,一切皆有以御之,而歸之于人之理性,非茍然為史已也。”正因為禮具有如此重要的功能,所以當人們一談到中國文化、中華文明,就會將其與禮緊密聯系在一起,并由此形成眾所周知的指稱概念——“禮儀之邦”或“禮義之邦”。但問題是,這兩個用語究竟是同一所指,抑或存在差別?其歷史演進脈絡又是怎樣一種情形?諸如此類問題,雖然已經受到關注,但仍有進一步探討的空間。
              從學術界和社會上關于禮的相關論說來看,雖然“禮儀之邦”“禮義之邦”屢屢呈現,但對兩者的剖判和它們之間的關系,長期以來卻罕見專門辨析,近年來才逐漸引起人們的注意。江蘇宜興中學的錢秀程先生于2004年發表的《“禮儀之邦”應為“禮義之邦”》(《語文知識》2004年第6期)一文,即使不是最早也是很早注目于此者的文章。該文雖然篇幅短小,但觀點鮮明地強調:用“禮儀之邦”是錯的,應使用“禮義之邦”。在作者看來,“中國自古以來就以‘禮義’作為道德標準,一貫重視制度品節,提倡遵循社會規范和道德規范,推崇為正義而獻身的操守。正因為這樣,中國才被稱為‘禮義之邦’。這樣的‘禮義之邦’才是值得自豪的,如果僅是注重行禮儀式的‘禮儀之邦’,有什么值得自豪的呢”?此后,中國藝術研究院的王能憲先生,更連續發表《豈止一字之差——“禮義之邦”考辨》《“禮義之邦”考辨》(見《光明日報》2012年12月17日、《文藝研究》2013年第2期)等文章,對“禮儀之邦”“禮義之邦”相關問題進行了深入細致的辨析。兩位先生對“禮義之邦”的研究和強調,引人深省。不過,觀諸史料,對于這一問題尚可作進一步厘析。
              歷史悠久的“禮義之邦”
                  從有關文獻記載來看,“禮義之邦”的出現,要遠遠早于“禮儀之邦”。唐朝房玄齡等監修的《晉書》記載,東晉孝武帝太元八年(383年),即前秦苻堅建元十九年,苻堅在長安建章宮為率兵出征西域的呂光送行時說:“西戎荒俗,非禮義之邦。羈縻之道,服而赦之,示以中國之威,導以王化之法,勿極武窮兵,過深殘掠。”又東晉孝武帝太元十年(385年),即前秦苻丕太安元年,鎮守博陵的王兗斥責叛投慕容麟的郡功曹張猗說:“卿,秦之人也。吾,卿之君也。起眾應賊,何名實相違之甚……不圖中州禮義之邦,而卿門風若斯。”據此,“禮義之邦”作為一個概念,早在公元383年即已出現;即使保守一點地說,至遲也應在《晉書》成書的貞觀二十二年(648年)。
              自此以后,“禮義之邦”便頻頻見諸正史、政書、地方志、文集等各種文獻中,直至今日,依然在使用。而其所指,誠如王能憲先生勾勒的,既有稱中國、中華、華夏或中土(中原、中州)者,也有稱齊魯等文明開化之地者,以及其他如浙東浙西等文化繁盛、民風淳厚之地者。其間,“禮義之邦”前還常冠以“文物”“詩書”“衣冠”“冠帶”“名教”“文學”“文章”“文雅”等詞。
              此外,“禮義之邦”有時也用來稱譽朝鮮、安南等地,這顯然與其深受中國文化的影響密切相關。值得一提的是,外國人也有使用這一概念的,如朝鮮通信使成大中在《槎上記·書日本二才子事》(1765年作)中就曾說:“余至日本,見奇才二人,筑州龜井魯、西京那波師曾也……初見吾輩,傾心結附,愿得載歸,一見禮義之邦,死無恨矣。”
              晚出的“禮儀之邦”
                   相較于“禮義之邦”,“禮儀之邦”時隔很久才出現。
              明朝人徐學聚編撰的《國朝典匯·朝貢》(問世于明天啟五年,流行的為清初補刻本)中記載:“隆慶元年初,上用鴻臚卿李際春言,四夷貢使俱不得至御前引見。至是,給事中張國彥等奏:‘朝鮮屬國,乃冠帶禮儀之邦,與諸夷不同,仍復舊班,以示優禮。’從之。”也就是說,直到1625年“禮儀之邦”始見諸文獻,前面加有“冠帶”二字。遲至乾隆二十五年(1760年),“禮儀之邦”才作為一個獨立的概念被使用。據1924年修《陸川縣志》載,陸川知縣應斯鳴在所撰《新建萬壽宮關帝殿合記》中說:“乃邑宰首倡,士民群然響應,爭先捐資,不數月而宮、殿鼎創,豈以務名哉,良由漸摩于德澤,感激于忠貞……推此心以行己接物,則教不肅而成,政不嚴而治,彬彬乎禮儀之邦矣!”不過,根據文意推斷,該詞還僅代指一地。
              直到民國年間,明確以“禮儀之邦”指稱“中國”才逐漸流行起來。如一位署名現世寶的人,于1938年發表了一篇題名為《中國弄堂里發見(現)禮儀之邦》(《現世報》第6期)的文章。作者開篇即指出:“中國是禮儀之邦,我看了幾十年,也看不出來,直到最近,在一件事情上,被我發見(現)實實在在是禮儀之邦。”此后,董化之在《時與文》1947年第20期上發表了《中國自來是個禮儀之邦》一文。以“禮儀之邦”指稱中國,以及稱中國自來是禮儀之邦,或濫觴于此。
              何以到了20世紀“禮儀之邦”成為中國的指稱詞,并廣為流行,相沿至今,使用頻率遠遠超過“禮義之邦”?這可能與中國自鴉片戰爭以來的衰落、受西方文化的沖擊、清王朝的崩潰、新文化運動對傳統的批判等因素有關;或者對絕大部分人來說,并未注意“儀”“義”二字的區別,以至于口耳相傳、混而不察吧。
              歷久彌新:禮之“儀”“義”的糾結
                   除了“禮義之邦”“禮儀之邦”,文獻中也經常出現“禮義之鄉”“禮義之國”“禮義之朝”“禮儀之國”等概念。
              據初步翻檢,“禮義之鄉”可能最早見于《史記·三王世家》(中華書局1997年版,第2118頁),“禮義之國”可能最早見于《漢書》(《高帝紀》《趙充國辛慶忌傳》,中華書局1997年版,第50、2987頁),而“禮義之朝”可能最早出現于南朝梁武帝天監十三年(514年)(宋鄭居中等《政和五禮新儀》之《政和御制冠禮》卷5),“禮儀之國”則可能最早見于清人黃遵憲所撰《日本國志·鄰交志上一》。“禮義之鄉”自出現一直沿用到1937年,而“禮義之國”沿用到清季,指稱與“禮義之邦”基本一致;其前也有冠以“忠信”“忠節”“文學”(“禮義之鄉”),或“守節”“詩書”“衣冠”“冠帶”“文章”(“禮義之國”)等詞者;相較而言,“禮義之朝”(除梁武帝外,宋人呂元泰、元人郝經也曾使用)、“禮儀之國”則較為少見。
              傳統中國,隨著時代的發展和社會共同體的需要,禮越來越變得豐富多彩起來。其間,既有文獻解說的積淀充盈,也有典章制度的應時制作,更有身體力行的規范引導。在此文化氛圍之下,三禮(《周禮》《儀禮》《禮記》)、四禮(冠、婚、喪、祭)、五禮(吉、兇、軍、賓、嘉)紛然而起,禮儀、禮制、禮俗競相雜陳,守禮、行禮、變禮與時變化,等等。究其歸趣,清代大儒顧炎武所謂“禮者,本于人心之節文,以為自治治人之具”,可謂一語破的。然而,自先秦以來,關于禮之義與儀的判別,則一直或顯或隱地糾結著人們的思維。
              如公元前537年,魯昭公“如晉,自郊勞至于贈賄,無失禮”。對此,晉侯以為他“善于禮”。然而,女叔齊卻有不同的看法,認為魯昭公不知禮。晉侯問其故,女叔齊回答:“是儀也,不可謂禮。”那么,什么是禮呢?他解釋說:“禮,所以守其國,行其政令,無失其民者也。”而反觀魯國現狀,則與禮之要求相去甚遠。所以女叔齊不無遺憾地感慨道:“禮之本末,將于此乎在,而屑屑焉習儀以亟。言善于禮,不亦遠乎!”又如公元前517年,趙簡子向子大叔問“揖讓周旋之禮”。子大叔回答:“是儀也,非禮也。”趙簡子追問:“何謂禮?”子大叔對道:“吉也聞諸先大夫子產曰:夫禮,天之經也,地之義也,民之行也。天地之經,而民實則之。則天之明,因地之性,生其六氣,用其五行。氣為五味,發為五色,章為五聲,淫則昏亂,民失其性。是故為禮以奉之。”趙簡子感嘆說:“甚哉!禮之大也。”子大叔又回應道:“禮,上下之紀,天地之經緯也,民之所以生也,是以先王尚之。故人之能自曲直以赴禮者,謂之成人。大,不亦宜乎!”《禮記》中也強調:“禮之所尊,尊其義也。失其義,陳其數,祝史之事也。故其數可陳也,其義難知也。知其義而敬守之,天子之所以治天下也。天地合,而后萬物興焉。”
               對于禮教大為痛恨的吳虞,通過梳理前人有關的禮論,也曾感慨:“夫談法律者,不貴識其條文,而貴明其所以立法之意;言禮制者,不在辨其儀節,而在知其所以制禮之心。”柳詒徵先生則強調:“以史言史者之未識史原,坐以儀為禮也。僅知儀之為禮,故限于史志之記載典章制度,而若紀表列傳之類不必根于禮經。不知典章制度節文等威繁變之原,皆本于天然之秩敘。”諸如此類的言論,無不表明對禮義重要性的重視。
               
                  當然,由于古今情勢的不同,僅僅強調禮義,也不免產生偏差。對此,集理學之大成的朱熹曾分辯道:“古者禮樂之書具在,人皆識其器數,卻怕他不曉其義,故教之曰:‘凡音之起,由人心生也。’又曰:‘失其義,陳其數者,祝、史之徒也。’今則禮、樂之書皆亡,學者卻但言其義,至以器數則不復曉,蓋失其本矣。”這一認識,可謂通達之論。
                  由此觀之,禮義之鄉、禮義之國、禮義之邦、禮義之朝、禮儀之邦、禮儀之國等詞的使用,經歷了一個不斷演變的過程,皆為“歷史的存在”,其間的興替,是與時代、時勢、人們的習慣與取舍等密不可分的,并非僅為誤用、濫用的問題。“禮義”與“禮儀”亦非非此即彼的對立物,其關鍵乃在于如何因時因勢把握其間的度。誠如宋儒程頤所強調的:“禮者,理也,文也。理者,實也,本也。文者,華也,末也。理文若二,而一道也。文過則奢,實過則儉。奢自文至,儉自實生,形影之類也。”總之,“禮乎禮!夫禮所以制中也”。而禮在傳統社會發展中究竟發揮了什么作用?它在今天還有沒有價值?禮的內涵和實質又是什么?怎樣才能把握禮的內在意義與外在表現的度?凡此種種,皆是歷久而彌新的話題,需予以認真地反思和探究。
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