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              死記硬背對智力的傷害:只為應試

              作者:admin
              發布時間 2016年-04月-11日
              來源: 新啟航教育
              點擊:
               教育心理學不反對記憶,是反對完全不能理解的記憶;教育心理學也不反對作業,相反還應該做家庭作業。
              鼓吹兒童讀經典(論語、道德經、易經、黃帝內經、三字經、孝經等)的人士,有一個非常吸引家長的理由,他們認為兒童大量背誦經典有如下好處:
                1、孩子的道德情操有保障;
                2、孩子記憶力有極大提高;
                3、孩子雖然對經典現在不理解,長大后用的時候,會下筆如有神  
                蘇聯的蘇霍姆林斯基認為:大量記憶孩子根本不能理解的東西,是對孩子智力極大的傷害。他在給教師的第36條建議“要愛惜和發展青少年的記憶力”中說道:“死記硬背一貫是有害的,而在少年期和青年期則尤其不可容忍。在這些年齡期,死記硬背會造成一種幼稚病——它會使成年人停留在幼稚階段,使他們智力遲鈍,阻礙才能和愛好的形成。死記硬背的產兒,它的最不吉利的產物之一,就是書呆子氣。就其實質來說,這就是把教小孩子時特用的那些方法和方式,搬用到少年和青年的身上來。這樣做的結果,就是青少年的智慧尚處于幼稚階段,卻又企圖讓他們掌握嚴肅的科學知識。這樣就使知識脫離生活實踐,使智力活動和社會活動的領域受到局限。產生這一重大禍害的主要原因之一,就是少年和男女青年使用著跟小孩子同樣的方法來獲取知識:他們把教科書里的教材一塊一塊地背誦下來,為的是以后又把自己的知識一塊一塊地“倒出來”給教師看,得到一個分數。這種隨意識記的“肥大癥”,簡直是要把人變成傻瓜。把這種書呆子氣從學校驅逐出去,是非常重要的教育任務之一”。
                為什么在我們國家,會有這么多人,其中很多都是受過很好高等教育的人,認同讓孩子大量記憶不能理解的知識的呢?這個問題一直令筆者百思不得其解。
              著名美國教育心理學家羅伯特.斯萊文(Robert E.Slavin)在其名著《教育心理學—理論與實踐》中舉了一個例子:一個中學老師把一堆雜亂無章的信息,投影到屏幕上,讓學生用幾秒鐘的時間記憶這些信息。然后,這個老師向學生提問:“想象一下某個同學能在3秒鐘時間內全部記憶住上面的那些雜亂無章的信息,你們如何評價這個同學”。一個學生回答道:“這是一個天才”,另外一個同學反駁:“會發瘋的”。這個老師同意第2個同學的觀點:“如果你的頭腦中塞滿了這些無用的垃圾,你將變成一個頭號的傻瓜。就學習而言,最重要的一點是:學習是一種主動加工過程,它關注重要信息,摒棄不重要的信息,并且利用我們頭腦中已有的知識經驗來決定其重要與否。只有你理解了的知識,才可能永久存儲在你的頭腦里面”。  
                教育心理學不反對記憶,是反對完全不能理解的記憶;教育心理學也不反對作業,相反還應該做家庭作業。但是,按照美國著名數學家波利亞老師的觀點,這些作業題目涉及的概念要互相聯系。也就是說,如果每個作業題目獲得的知識,形成了知識“孤島”,這樣的作業的效率和效果是低下的。好教育追求的是通過有效的作業,獲得的知識,就像計算機互聯網一樣彼此聯系。這樣的作業的效率和效果是高效的,這樣的知識能協同,對于解決實際問題將會產生巨大的作用。
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