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              這6個時刻,抱抱你的寶貝

              作者:admin
              發布時間 2016年-04月-11日
              來源: 新啟航教育
              點擊:
              寶寶出生前,在媽媽的子宮里,感受母體的圍繞。出生后,父母的摟抱能讓他感受到相同的親密感,有助于培養孩子的安全感
                    華人首富李嘉誠先生在回憶自己幼年時,曾深情地說:“最難忘記的是父親的擁抱。我至今還清楚地記得,穩健而富有涵養的父親與我親密接觸時,常常會忍不住緊緊擁抱我,并把我舉得很高……”寶寶出生前,在媽媽的子宮里,感受母體的圍繞。出生后,父母的摟抱能讓他感受到相同的親密感,有助于培養孩子的安全感。
                心理學上有一個名詞———皮膚饑餓,是指小時候極少得到父母擁抱的孩子,在長大后容易形成的一種潛在的對被愛、被關心、被撫慰的渴望。當這種渴望過于強烈時,可能就會導致一種病態的情感需求。而從小能夠充分享受皮膚接觸的孩子,長大后在獲得愛的滿足、平衡情緒、擁有自信和關愛別人等方面會做得更好。另外,擁抱是一種天然的減壓良藥,美國埃默里大學發現,多擁抱孩子可以使其進入成年后更好地應對各種壓力。意大利一項研究顯示,孩子經常得到父母的擁抱,不太容易抑郁,并有信心來解決各種問題。美國心理學家赫洛德·傅斯博士則發現,擁抱能提高孩子的心理素質,讓他們變得更堅強。尤其在以下幾個時刻,孩子最需要父母的擁抱。
                1.剛出生時。國外研究發現,寶寶出生1小時內,母親就應抱抱他,進行親密的肌膚接觸。這樣做可以減少寶寶的應激反應、減少哭鬧、增加睡眠,有利于嬰兒的生長發育。另一項研究顯示,出生后0~2個月就接受撫觸的兒童,智能發育指數(MDI)比不做撫觸的兒童高7.4分。
                2.哭泣時。哭泣是人類的本能,其背后隱藏著復雜的情緒,可能是恐懼、受傷,也可能是饑餓、委屈等。孩子的表達能力不完善,很難讓父母及時、正確地理解其哭泣的真正原因。嬰兒哭泣時,家長要檢查孩子是否有生理需求要滿足,比如餓了、需要換尿布等。大一點的孩子哭了,父母要問清楚他們的需要。如果受了委屈,不妨蹲下身,將孩子擁入懷中,給他們安全感。
                3.剛睡醒時。大人們睡醒都有“起床氣”,孩子剛睡醒時,也可能不適應,難免會產生失落感,周圍熟悉的世界也似乎變得陌生。此時,家長可以抱著寶寶四處看看,幫他們盡快擺脫剛睡醒的懵懂狀態。
                4.受挫時。當嬰兒突然被巨大的聲音嚇到時、走路摔倒時,當幼兒在學習、人際交往等方面受挫時,家長的擁抱就是最好的心靈港灣,能讓幼小的心靈得到撫慰,盡快忘記剛剛發生的不愉快。如果得不到家長的及時擁抱,孩子就不得不獨自面對難以承受的壓力。久而久之,他們可能會養成冷漠、自私等不良個性。
                5.面臨陌生環境時。6個月左右的寶寶開始怕生,他們對陌生人或陌生環境都可能產生抗拒心理。而即將上幼兒園的孩子,面對陌生的環境、伙伴和生活方式,更像是面對一場“劫難”。這些時刻,家長都要抱抱孩子,等他熟悉之后,再鼓勵他離開大人的懷抱。
                6.與孩子分別時。現代社會流動性強,親子間難免面臨或長或短的分離。比如家長出差、過年一方要加班等,就不得不與孩子分別。從心理學角度講,分離是孩子遭遇的較為嚴重的心理危機,如果家長處理不好,孩子容易出現分離焦慮,長大后也難以信任他人。分別時,父母要給孩子一個擁抱
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