Coxsackievirus B3 and the Neonatal CNS: The Roles of Stem Cells, Developing Neurons, and Apoptosis

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In 58 of 322 specimens (18%) serotyping was possible. Within 1 hour of delivery, the infant was noted to have grunting, nasal flaring, and tachypnea, requiring continuous positive airway pressure. In 1 infant with EV infection and 3 infants with PeV infection, neurodevelopmental delay occurred. In 1999, prior to the FDA decision, a placebo-controlled trial of oral pleconaril for severe enterovirus infection in neonates was initiated by the NIH Collaborative Antiviral Study Group (CASG). In 1 infant with EV infection and 3 infants with PeV infection, neurodevelopmental delay occurred. 6,7 In addition to the acute pathology induced by neonatal CNS infection, there may be delayed effects; for example, some evidence links childhood enterovirus infection with adult-onset schizophrenia. Bacterial meningitis usually occurs as a result of bacteremia and sepsis, with initial seeding of the central nervous system via the choroid plexus.

Paediatricians were asked to notify cases presenting as clinical meningitis in newborn babies of 28 days of age or less. In general, enteroviruses cause febrile illnesses, which are often accompanied by a viral exanthem, vomiting, diarrhea, and malaise. Nonpolio EV have been recognized as the most common etiology of meningitis in infants5 and as a cause of neonatal myocarditis.67 The acquisition of the virus and the presentation of the broad spectrum of illness in neonates have been described in epidemiologic studies,78 case series,9 and reviews.101112 However, perhaps because of the seasonal prevalence of EV and delay in reporting viral culture results, in clinical practice these viruses are not consistently considered in the evaluation of neonates with suspected sepsis and/or meningitis who have negative bacterial cultures. Some syndromes are almost caused exclusively by group A viruses (herpangina, hand-foot-mouth disease), some others by group B (epidemic pleurodynia, myocarditis of the newborn). The reason for this seems to be a decrease in protection against HSV-1 – shows in the new study as a decrease in adolescents with antibodies against HSV-1 – along with an increase in the prevalence of oral sex that can spread virus oral herpes of the mouth to the genitals, Schaffner said. He was transferred to the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston on his 12th day of life for possible hemodialysis. PCR analysis for HPeV3, enterovirus, and HSV is important in newborns presenting with unexplained seizures, especially if associated with rash and MRI evidence of white matter lesions.

Enteroviruses include more than 260 different types of pathogens including polioviruses, echoviruses, coxsackieviruses and rhinoviruses. EV myocarditis is a rare but severe disease in the neonatal period, which often leads to death or results in serious chronic cardiac sequelae like chronic heart failure, aneurysm formation within the left ventricle and mitral regurgitation. Viral culture involved inoculation onto Rhesus monkey kidney cells, MRC-5 cells, and A549 cells and staining and grouping by indirect immunofluorescence. Bangalore H, Ahmen J, Bible J, Menson EN, Durward A, et al. The number of laboratories participating in NESS increased from eight in 1999 to 21 in 2000 and 25 in 2001. His temperature was 101 F. Meningitis caused by this organism is highly contagious and can result in the most serious type of meningitis.

On the sixth day of her life she struggled to breathe and was transferred to the Great North Children’s Hospital with meningitis and septicaemia. Following CNS infection, inflammation can arise in distinct anatomical regions such as the meninges (meningitis), brain (encephalitis), and spinal cord (myelitis), or simultaneously in multiple regions (meningoencephalitis, encephalomyelitis). Thrombotic events were identified in 32 of 4734 neonates (0.7%). Description of Surveillance System: The National Enterovirus Surveillance System (NESS) is a voluntary, passive surveillance system that has monitored trends in circulating enteroviruses since 1961. Few viral infections present with respiratory and GI symptoms. During 2006–2008, southern states reported the most serotyped enterovirus detections, followed by midwestern states, western states, and the northeastern states. Johnson says.

Clin Infec Dis 2004; 39: 1267-84. 221–238. Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common etiologic agent among those with viral pneumonia (91%) and URTI (68%). Risk factors and clinical features associated with severe disease include absence of neutralizing antibody to the infecting serotype, maternal illness prior to or at delivery, prematurity, illness onset within the first few days of life, multiorgan disease, severe hepatitis, positive serum viral culture, and specific infecting serotype (e.g. Altogether, 34 viruses were assigned echovirus serotype designations but echovirus 10 and 28 were reclassified as a reovirus and a rhinovirus respectively and the numbers are now unused. A CSF enterovirus PCR test was performed in 361 of 1231 eligible infants (29.3%); 89 of those tested (24.7%) were positive. Rudge et al.[1] conclude that EVs are a major cause of the diverse CNS symptoms and signs in patients with CVID.

We aimed to assess the risk factors for SBI in febrile infants. Difficulty in concentration, coordination issues, Tremors (hands & body)My…