Development of a Transcription-Reverse Transcription Concerted Reaction Method for Specific Detection of Human Enterovirus 71

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Recently, human enteroviruses are classified into four species, HEV-A to HEV-D based on genomic sequences. Due to limitation of sera available from children with EV71 primary infection, suitable animal models should be developed to generate a panel of antisera for monitoring EV71 antigenic variations. All together, 768 NPEVs were isolated from AFP cases in Shandong Province in this period. To clarify whether the in vitro viral load reduction correlates with clinical severity, we enrolled children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. The detection limits and the specificity of this TRCR method were evaluated with the EV71 strains from all known genotypes (A, B1 to B5, and C1 to C5) (Table 1). In children 5–15 yrs of age, seroprevalence of EV71 neutralizing antibodies was 84% and in cord blood it was 55%. HPeV type 1 (HPeV1) and HPeV3 infections are common worldwide (5, 6); however, other HPeV infections, especially HPeV4 infections, are less common.

Some HEV serotypes were only detected from HFMD cases, and not from healthy controls. EV71 vaccines are being developed. We conducted genetic and antigenic characterizations of the 2012 epidemic. We describe, for the first time, a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR system validated to detect all 8 EV-A71 genogroups. In this study, we found that the serum levels of galectin-1 in EV71-infected children were higher than those in non-infected people. The case patient was a 17-year-old male who had previously been in good health. In six regions of Russian Federation, seroprevalence of EV71 in sera collected in 2008 ranged from 5% to 20% in children aged 1–2 years and from 19% to 83% in children aged 3–5 years.

The skin or mucosal manifestations of this outbreak demonstrated considerable variation. The case patient was a 17-year-old male who had previously been in good health. Vesicle swabs were positive for 169 (48%) of 333 patients with vesicles, the yield being greater if two or more vesicles were swabbed. EV infections in neonates can cause severe disease characterized by meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pneumonitis, and/or hepatitis and coagulopathy. On the other hand, the original clinical specimens were directly screened for enterovirus by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with panenterovirus-specific primers. The beta-sandwich structure of the viral capsid proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 is conserved between CVB3 and other picornaviruses. Differential diagnosis of the disease must include consideration of herpes simplex, herpangina, recurrent aphthae, erythema multiforme, and animal foot and mouth disease.

Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4–8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. One hundred and forty-one (47.6%) inpatients were further analyzed for clinical presentations, laboratory findings, and clinical diagnoses. Questionnaires, completed by the participants’ guardians, surveyed the history of allergy and annual incidence of symptoms related to enterovirus infection. The annual incidence rate of influenza in 2002-2005 was 57.7-142.6 per 1,000 population. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the common causes of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). We have determined that these seven circulating EV71 viruses from Changchun, China are actually complex recombinant viruses involving multiple type A human enterovirus (HEV). Thus, EV71 has been identified as the most prevalent genotype causing HFMD in recent years.

Enteroviruses were cultivated in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD), 293 or A549 cells. During the 56 weeks of studies, no fever nor local redness and swelling at sites of injections was observed in the immunized macaques. In the severe cases of EV71 infection patients, the nervous system infection was most frequent. 1% samples were detected positive for enteroviruses. The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. The infected gerbils eventually died of the neurological lesions and EV71 could be isolated from lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem and skeletal muscle. This was a retrospective study conducted in Jiangsu Province, in October, 2010.

DTriP-22 (4{4-[(2-bromo-phenyl)-(3-methyl-thiophen-2-yl)-methyl]-piperazin-1-yl}-1-pheny-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) was found to be a novel and potent inhibitor of EV71. The series includes documents on protozoans, helminth worms, viruses, fungi, algae, cyanophytes and bacteria. However, no pulmonary lesions have been found in EV71-infected transgenic or non-transgenic mouse models. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with high mortality among children. Simultaneous occurrence of two immunological types of group A “Coxsackie” virus in a case of herpangina. Large-scale outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) have occurred frequently and caused neurological sequelae in mainland China since 2008. Human enteroviruses have more than 90 serotypes, which cause a wide spectrum of acute febrile diseases among infants and children.

Enterovirus (EV) 71 is the main pathogen associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina. Most circulating strains of Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have been classified primarily into three genogroups (A to C) on the basis of genetic divergence between the 1D gene, which encodes the VP1 capsid protein. EV71 (enterovirus 71) RNA contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that directs cap-independent initiation of translation.